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BRAC Education Programme

Country Profile: Bangladesh

Population

150,448,340 (2007 estimate)

Poverty (Population living on less than 1 US$ per day):

36% (1990-2004)

Official Language

Bengali (Bengla)

Total Expenditure on Education as % of GNP

2.4

Access to Primary Education – Total Net Intake Rate (NIR)

91% (2005)

Total Youth Literacy Rate (15–24 years)

64% (1995-2004)

Adult Literacy Rate (15 years and over, 1995-2004)
  • Total: 47%
  • Male: 54%
  • Female: 41%
Sources

Programme Overview

Programme Title BRAC Education Programme (BEP)
Implementing Organization Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC)
Language of Instruction Bengali/Bengla
Funding DFID, CIDA, Royal Netherlands Embassy, Royal Norwegian Embassy, Oxfam, NOVIB, UNICEF & AusAid
Date of Inception 2003

Overview

The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) is a non-governmental development organization that was founded in early 1972. It initially focused on assisting refugees returning from India to their newly independent country. From 1973, BRAC broadened its focus to include projects which endeavoured to promote long term, sustainable poverty reduction. BRAC’s holistic approach to poverty alleviation and the empowerment of the poor encompasses a range of core programmes in economic and social development, health, education, human rights and legal services. Today, BRAC employs more than 100,000 people, a majority of whom are women, and reaches more than 110 million people with its development interventions. BRAC's activities extend to Afghanistan, Pakistan, Uganda, Tanzania and Southern Sudan.

Context and Background

Bangladesh has made remarkable progress towards achieving Education for All (EFA). It has been lauded for its success in achieving gender parity at primary and secondary school level. Notable progress has also been made at enrolment level. Despite these achievements, it is estimated that about 1.3 million primary school-age children still have no access to education. The rate of student school drop-out from formal schools is also high, due in part to poverty as the expenses involved in accessing education are high. In addition, poor attendance, a shortage of trained teachers and student-teacher ratios as high as 51:1 in some cases, are all critical factors which further undermine the quality of education and students' overall achievements. It is therefore imperative to promote educational reform as well as to implement projects which complement the formal education system. BRAC initiated the BRAC Education Programme - BEP in 1985 in an effort to address some of these challenges.

Programme

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BEP was initially launched as BRAC Non-Formal Primary Education (NFPE) in 1985. In 2003 it was renamed as BRAC Education Programme (BEP). BEP carries out its programme activities in accordance with a five-year plan and is active in five major areas:

  • Non-formal Primary Education is one of the major programmes through which BRAC provides quality primary education to underprivileged children.
  • The Pre-primary Schools programme prepares children across the country aged 5 + for primary school entry.
  • The Adolescent Development Programme (ADP) aims at improving the quality of life of vulnerable adolescents, especially girls, by training them in vocational skills, health awareness (including reproductive health) and leadership.
  • The Multi Purpose Community Learning Centres provide continued learning and IT facilities for all the people in the community and foster community contributions towards promoting education.
  • 'The Mainstream Secondary Schools Support' initiative builds the capacities of rural secondary school teachers and helps to improve classroom pedagogy as well as the overall quality of education.

School premises are rented from the community, which also provides safe environments where children can play games or participate in co-curricular activities. The communities also provide clean drinking water and proper sanitation.

According to the 2007 audit report, the annual cost (January to December) of the programme is BDT 3,322,331,606 (equivalent to USD 47,461,880 according to current conversion rates). The average cost per learner is USD 23 per year.

Objectives

BRAC’s general aim is to assist the Government of Bangladesh in its efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDGs) and the Education For All (EFA) goals by 2015. BEP’s specific objectives are as follows:

  • To provide quality primary education for children outside formal education institutions.
  • To improve access to education, especially for girls.
  • To enhance the success of formal primary education through pre-primary schools.
  • To improve the quality of secondary education.
  • To empower adolescents by improving their life skills.
  • To build capacities through the establishment of lifelong education and learning.

Implementation: Approaches and Methodologies

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The programme’s main target groups are:

  • children aged 5+ eligible for pre-primary schooling;
  • out-of-school children (8-10 and 11-14 years), with a special focus on girls;
  • youth (15-24 years);
  • poor populations and the unemployed;
  • ethnic minorities;
  • families; and
  • children with special needs (children from poor urban slums, remote rural/hard-to-reach areas, children with disabilities).

BEP’s primary target group comprises women and girls, especially from the rural areas, as they represent the most disadvantaged sector of the population. BEP has recently extended its outreach to children from ethnic minority groups and children with disabilities. Since people are conscious of BRAC and its efforts, enrolment is generally not a problem. BRAC schools provide a child-friendly environment in which students receive individual care and attention. In addition, upon graduation, BRAC students who enrol in mainstream formal schools are provided with follow-up activities by BRAC staff to ensure that they are not overwhelmed by the transition.

Since adolescents realise that an increased awareness of Adolescent Peer Organized Network (APON) issues is beneficial to them, enrolment in adolescent centres is also high. Adolescent centres are open to participants once a week for two hours after school.

Before Multi Purpose Community Learning Centres (Gonokendros) are set up, BRAC staff embarks on meetings with community members, including parents. Membership enrolment is fairly straightforward. For secondary schools students, enrolment is simple, as the Multi Purpose Community Learning Centres are situated on school premises. The retention rate is also very high as community members are given responsibility for the Multi Purpose Community Learning Centre after a certain period.

Facilitators: Profile and Training

The required facilitator profiles vary depending on the respective programme area:

BRAC Schools (both pre-primary and primary) :A typical BRAC teacher would be a female community member with 10-12 years of schooling. Teachers undergo an initial 12-day training course in order to repeat basic information on teaching and learning and to enhance their teaching abilities. They subsequently participate in monthly, subject-based refresher courses.

Adolescent Centres: Adolescents are given a residential TOT (Training of Trainers) which enables them to facilitate the APON courses themselves. Each Kishori Netri (adolescent leader) is prepared for this role during a 6-day Facilitation Course. The main advantages of this recruiting process are as follows:

  • Adolescents who participate in this training course gain leadership qualities and confidence.
  • Being roughly the same age, participants have similar problems and can therefore empathise with one another more easily.
  • Course participants are more comfortable asking questions about sensitive topics if they are addressing their peers.

Multi Purpose Community Learning Centres: Again, Multi Purpose Community Learning Centres are mostly run by local women selected by the Programme Organizers (POs). With the exception of the rural areas, where fewer qualifications are required, the minimum level of qualification is ten years of schooling. People in charge of a Multi Purpose Community Learning Centre undergo two weeks of basic training on library operations. In addition, monthly meetings with the managers offer them the opportunity to discuss any operational problems they might encounter.

BRAC employs one facilitator per school/centre, except for multilingual schools, which have two facilitators. The average number of learners per facilitator ranges from 25 to 33. Again, in the case of multilingual schools, two facilitators are responsible for between 25 and 30 learners.

There is no standard remuneration for BRAC facilitators and their salaries vary depending on the programme area in which they are working. BRAC school teachers receive a monthly salary of Tk. 1250 - 1650 (equivalent to USD 18 - 24) depending on the school’s location (rural or urban) and the level of the class that they are teaching. Facilitators in the ADP centres are not paid but work on a volunteer basis. Librarians in Multi Purpose Community Learning Centres (Gonokendro) are paid Tk. 800 (equivalent to USD 12) per month.

Teaching/Learning Approach and Method

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The language of instruction is Bengali. However, in the case of ethnic schools, a local language is used during the initial grades and is slowly replaced by Bengali using a bridging method. All of the methods and pedagogical approaches used by BEP facilitators tend to be learner centred, interactive, gender sensitive, pro-poor, and child and teacher friendly. The pedagogical approach and methodology used naturally depends on the subject being taught and on the learners’ level of knowledge. BEP’s teaching methods are committed to the following principles:

  • small group activities, such as one-to-one discussions with peers;
  • role-play activities, story telling and recitation methods;
  • question-and-answer sessions and discussions; and
  • field trips.

The techniques named above can be modified according to the learners’ prior knowledge and organized from “easy to difficult”, “known to unknown”, “whole to part” and “part to whole”.

Thematic Areas Addressed by the Programme

The specific thematic areas addressed by the programme are:

  • basic literacy and numeracy skills;
  • post-literacy;
  • life skills and income generation;
  • health;
  • the application of ICTs in teaching and learning;
  • multilingual contexts;
  • family literacy and intergenerational learning;
  • supporting literate environments through continuing education;
  • teacher training for the formal secondary school level;
  • community development;
  • gender; and
  • work-based literacy.

As the programme is issue-based and focuses on life skills, ADP content includes:

  • social issues: child rights, child marriage, gender, dowries, sexual abuse, substance abuse, child trafficking, domestic violence, acid throwing, divorce, terrorism, etc.
  • health issues: reproductive health, STIs, HIV/AIDS, family planning, personal hygiene, etc.
  • Life skills: decision-making, negotiations, effective communication, problem-solving, critical and creative thinking, etc.

Curriculum and Materials

While other components have their own guidelines/curriculum, BRAC primary schools follow the national curriculum.

BEP develops teaching and learning materials according to the specific needs of BRAC school students. It also develops ADP and continuing education materials. As pupils tend to be first generation learners, they often have no-one at home who can assist them in their studies. Hence, teaching and learning materials must meet a number of criteria and all instructional materials developed and used by BEP are national, competency-based, teacher/child friendly, relevant to the learners’ lives, gender sensitive and inclusive in terms of religion, ethnicity and disability.

Community and Parental Involvement

The community plays a vital role the planning of all BRAC interventions and their implementation. Community members are consulted in advance so that their needs can be taken into consideration. They contribute significantly to the pre-primary and primary school operations of BRAC and the ADP, as well as to post-primary basic and continuing education.

Each school has a School Management Committee (SMC), consisting of seven members, and a Parents’ Forum, both of which maintain the school and ensure that the children attend regularly. The SMC also oversees teachers’ attendance, school timetables and arrangements for parents’ meeting. They also deal with the transition to secondary school once children have completed the primary cycle.

A monthly parents’ meeting, facilitated by BRAC Programme organizers, is held at the school to discuss parents’ roles concerning their children’s education. The parents are responsible for their children’s progress, regular attendance, cleanliness and hygiene. This involvement fosters better understanding and partnerships between parents and other members of the community.

Mothers are briefed on the concrete objectives and benefits of the adolescent centres before their children participate in the ADP. This improves communication between parents and children and raises awareness on key issues with which adolescents are confronted.

Following initial support from BRAC, the Multi Purpose Community Learning Centres, known as Gonokendros, are run entirely by the community members themselves. They also play an active role on adolescent centre committees.

Furthermore, by running the libraries and learning centres and helping to create a supportive environment for the use of these facilities, the community plays a leading role in the implementation of these programme areas.

Monitoring and Evaluation

Monitoring is considered a crucial element for improving the programme’s quality. One supervisor usually monitors 20-25 primary schools and 10-15 pre-primary schools selected at random. Evaluations focus on both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the programme. In order to ensure the quality of the evaluation results, standardised guidelines are provided for monitors. Monitors attend all classes and subjects on a given day in order to assess classroom-based teacher-student interactions and the delivery of lessons. The results are shared with the teachers who will, in turn, discuss any problems identified with the students and take corrective measures.

BEP is based on a complex structure of management and each component has its own supervision and monitoring mechanism. This organizational structure helps to keep all stakeholders informed and permits them to take the necessary initiatives to improve the programme’s quality. Most of the components are supervised in the same manner and are subject to the following forms and levels of supervision:

1. Branch Office (Upazilla/Union Level): The branch office is crucial to all components. There are Programme Organizers for each programme area who act as the grassroots level supervisor for the respective component. The POs responsible for primary and pre-primary schools are supervised in turn by a Branch Manager (BM), with the exception of the POs of PACE and ADP, who are subject to supervision by the area offices.

2. Area and Regional Office: Each Area Office has an Area Education Manager (AEM) for primary and pre-primary schools and ADP. PACE, in turn, has a District Manager (DM) who is in charge of the programme’s administration in the respective area. The remaining Regional Managers (RM) are the most senior supervisors at the field level. All components are subject to their control and their duties include:

  • the coordination of all of the AEMs’ activities;
  • the development of plans for school operation;
  • the supervision of staff development; and
  • the monitoring of schools and financial matters.

All supervisory staff, such as the BMs, AEMs and RMs, is responsible for communicating with different stakeholders, including governmental and non-governmental organizations, in order to keep them informed and to share control of the programme’s implementation.

3. Central Office: There is a special unit for all BEP components that is located at the head office and is subject to managerial control. Managers bear the full responsibility for all kinds of initiatives and activities within the respective component. They in turn report to the Programme Manager (PM), Programme Coordinator (PC) and the Director of BEP.

So far, three external evaluations of the BEP have been made.

  • The 1st Annual Monitoring Mission took place from 15 January to 16 February 2006.
  • The Mid-Term Review was held in March 2007.
  • The Appraisal Team reviewed BEP activities and made recommendations during the period 6-30 April 2008.

Another control mechanism is provided by donors, who not only support BEP financially, but also contribute to its quality improvement and credibility by initiating appraisals, annual monitoring processes, and mid-term/end-of-phase evaluation missions. Consequently, evaluation is usually carried out by both local and expatriate experts.

Impact and Achievements

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BRAC’s educational activities started in 1985 with just 22 one-room schools. The activities covered three upazillas, served less than 700 children and were administered by just five staff members. Today, BEP operates on a national level. It reaches 470 of the 482 upazillas in all 64 districts of Bangladesh. Moreover, the BRAC school models have been replicated on a national and international level. In Bangladesh, 714 smaller partner NGOs are applying the BRAC non-formal school model to provide basic primary education in remote areas. The BRAC school model has also been replicated in other countries of the world such as Afghanistan, Tanzania, Uganda, Sudan and Pakistan.

The following figures give a more detailed idea of BEP’s impact:

  • Across the country, almost 1.1 million children participate in BRAC schools each year.
  • To date, 3.8 million children have graduated from BRAC schools.
  • More than 2.3 million children have successfully completed the pre-primary school level.
  • The ADP serves over 250,000 learners, while the 1,830 rural libraries in Multi Purpose Community Learning Centres (Gonokendras) and 8,660 Kishori Kendras give members access to a variety of reading materials. Those community learning centres have almost 762,000 members.
  • 98% of all students transferred to a primary school after completing the pre-primary course.
  • Around 93% of all graduates from primary school transferred to secondary schools.
  • 78% of all pupils gain the required skills upon completion of their course.
  • Drop-out rate total just 6%.
  • 75% of Gonokendros are self-funded.

Students are required to pass the Grade V examination set by the government and over 96% succeed in doing so, showing that BRAC school learners’ performance is on a par with that of mainstream primary school pupils. BRAC schools therefore teach learners the same skills as the government schools, even though they enrol and retain a higher proportion of hard-to-reach children, such as girls, who make up 65% of the student body.

Challenges and Future Plans

BRAC is facing challenges concerning children’s access to the BEP. Since most schoolchildren assist their parents with housework and agricultural activities, it is difficult for them to attend school at fixed times. A flexible timetable has thus been developed in BRAC schools.

Ensuring continuous education, including a smooth transition to a higher level of education, has proven to be as challenging as creating viable links to future employment. BRAC staff uses monitoring and research to analyse problems. It also interacts with all BEP stakeholders to develop appropriate solutions. Decisions and/or recommendations are usually elaborated during workshops, meetings, seminars or group discussions.

During its next phase of development (from 2009 to 2014), BRAC plans to expand the BEP by establishing about 33,000 non-formal primary schools and 30,000 pre-primary schools, as well as 7,000 adolescent centres and 700 new Multi Purpose Community Learning Centres.

Sustainability

Funding for the programme is provided by international donors, including the Department for International Development (DFID), the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), the Royal Netherlands Embassy, the Royal Norwegian Embassy, Oxfam NOVIB, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the Australian Government Overseas Aid Program (AusAid). BRAC also contributes towards BEP funding. Since the programme is donor-supported and some funding has already been secured, the programme is set to continue for the years to come.

The programme’s sustainability is strengthened by the Gonokendros because they are financially self-sustaining and predominantly based on community co-operation and involvement. Another crucial factor that improves the sustainability of the programme is the fact that community ownership of BEP is high.

Lessons Learned

For any programme to succeed and be sustainable, the active participation of the community is needed. BEP has shown that livelihood programmes are indeed able to contribute towards transforming the lives of young girls and changing community attitudes towards them.

BRAC’s organizational structure, including its supportive supervision mechanism, has proven to be efficient for the implementation of such a complex programme. Effective monitoring and evaluation processes are crucial to the ongoing enhancement of the programme.

Contact

Safiqul Islam Director BRAC Education Programme BRAC Centre 75 Mohakhali Dhaka 1212 Bangladesh E-mail: safiqul.i (at) brac.net

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Last update: 14 December 2009

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KERRY GLASGOWIS HUMANITY'S LAST BEST CHANCE - Join search for Sustainaabilty's Curricula

Dear Robert - you kindly asked for a short email so that you could see if there is a CGTN anchor in east coast who might confidentially share views with my expectation of how only Asian young women cultural movements (parenting and community depth but amplified by transparent tech in life shaping markets eg health, food, nature..) can return sustainability to all of us
three of my father's main surveys in The Economist 1962-1977 explain imo where future history will take us (and so why younger half of world need friendship/sustainable adaptation with Chinese youth -both on mainland and diaspora)
 1962 consider japan approved by JF Kennedy: argued good news - 2 new economic models were emerging through japan korea south and taiwan relevant to all Asia Rising (nrxt to link the whole trading/supply chains of the far east coast down through hong kong and cross-seas at singapore)
1 rural keynsianism ie 100% productivity in village first of all food security- borlaug alumni ending starvation
2 supercity costal trade models which designed hi-tech borderless sme value chains- to build a 20 million person capital or an 8 million person superport you needed the same advances in engineering - partly why this second economic model was win-win for first time since engines begun Glasgow 1760 ; potentially able to leverage tech giant leaps 100 times ahead; the big opportunity von neumann had gifted us - knowhow action networking multiply value application unlike consuming up things
1976 entrepreneurial revolution -translated into italian by prodi - argued that future globalisation big politics big corporate would need to be triangularised by community scaled sme networks- this was both how innovation advancing human lot begins and also the only way to end poverty in the sense of 21st C being such that next girl born can thrive because every community taps in diversity/safety/ valuing child and health as conditions out of which intergenerational economic growth can spring
in 1977 fathers survey of china - argued that there was now great hope that china had found the system designs that would empower a billion people to escape from extreme poverty but ultimately education of the one child generation (its tech for human capabilities) would be pivotal ( parallel 1977 survey looked at the futures of half the world's people ie east of iran)
best chris macrae + 1 240 316 8157 washington DC
IN MORE DETAIL TECH HUMAN EXPONENTIALS LAST CHANCE DECADE? 
 - we are in midst of unprecedented exponential change (dad from 1960s called death of distance) the  tech legacy of von neumann (dad was his biographer due to luckily meeting him in his final years including neumann's scoping of brain science (ie ai and human i) research which he asked yale to continue in his last lecture series). Exponential risks of extinction track to  mainly western top-down errors at crossroads of tech  over last 60 years (as well as non transparent geonomic mapping of how to reconcile what mainly 10 white empires had monopoly done with machines 1760-1945 and embedded in finance - see eg keynes last chapter of general theory of money); so our 2020s destiny is conditioned by quite simple local time-stamped details but ones that have compounded so that root cause and consequence need exact opposite of academic silos- so I hope there are some simple mapping points we can agree sustainability and chinese anchors in particular are now urgently in the middle of
Both my father www.normanmacrae.net at the economist and I (eg co-authoring 1984 book 2025 report, retranslated to 1993 sweden's new vikings) have argued sustainability in early 21st c will depend mostly on how asians as 65% of humans advance and how von neumann (or moores law) 100 times more tech every decade from 1960s is valued by society and business.
My father (awarded Japan's Order of Rising Sun and one time scriptwriter for Prince Charles trips to Japan) had served as teen allied bomber command burma campaign - he therefore had google maps in his head 50 years ahead of most media people, and also believed the world needed peace (dad was only journalist at messina birth of EU ) ; from 1960 his Asian inclusion arguments were almost coincidental to Ezra Vogel who knew much more about Japan=China last 2000 years ( additionally  cultural consciousness of silk road's eastern dynamics not golden rule of Western Whites) and peter drucker's view of organisational systems
(none of the 10 people at the economist my father had mentored continued his work past 1993- 2 key friends died early; then the web turned against education-journalism when west coast ventures got taken over by advertising/commerce instead of permitting 2 webs - one hi-trust educational; the other blah blah. sell sell .sex sell. viral trivial and hate politicking)
although i had worked mainly in the far east eg with unilever because of family responsibilities I never got to china until i started bumping into chinese female graduates at un launch of sdgs in 2015- I got in 8 visits to beijing -guided by them around tsinghua, china centre of globalisation, a chinese elder Ying Lowrey who had worked on smes in usa for 25 years but was not jack ma's biographer in 2015 just as his fintech models (taobao not alibaba) were empowering villagers integration into supply chains; there was a fantastic global edutech conference dec 2016 in Tsinghua region (also 3 briefings by Romano Prodi to students) that I attended connected with  great womens education hero bangladesh's fazle abed;  Abed spent much of hs last decade hosting events with chinese and other asian ambassadors; unite university graduates around sdg projects the world needed in every community but which had first been massively demonstrated in asia - if you like a version of schwarzman scholars but inclusive of places linking all deepest sustainability goals challenges 
and i personally feel learnt a lot from 3 people broadcasting from cgtn you and the 2 ladies liu xin and  tian wei (they always seemed to do balanced interviews even in the middle of trump's hatred campaigns), through them I also became a fan of father and daughter Jin at AIIB ; i attended korea's annual general meet 2017 of aiib; it was fascinating watching bankers for 60 countries each coming up with excuses as to why they would not lead on infrastructure investments (even though the supercity economic model depends on that)
Being a diaspora scot and a mathematician borders (managers who maximise externalisation of risks) scare me; especially rise of nationalist ones ;   it is pretty clear historically that london trapped most of asia in colomisdation ; then bankrupted by world war 2 rushed to independence without the un or anyone helping redesign top-down systems ; this all crashed into bangladesh the first bottom up collaboration women lab ; ironically on health, food security, education bangladesh and chinese village women empowerment depended on sharing almost every village microfranchise between 1972 and 2000 especially on last mile health networking
in dads editing of 2025 from 1984 he had called for massive human awareness by 2001 of mans biggest risk being discrepancies in incomes and expectations of rich and poor nations; he suggested that eg public broadcast media could host a reality tv end poverty entrepreneur competition just as digital media was scaling to be as impactful as mass media
that didnt happen and pretty much every mess - reactions to 9/11, failure to do ai of epidemics as priority from 2005 instead of autonomous cars, failure to end long-term carbon investments, subprime has been rooted in the west not having either government nor big corporate systems necessary to collaboratively value Asian SDG innovations especially with 5g
I am not smart enough to understand how to thread all the politics now going on but in the event that any cgtn journalist wants to chat especially in dc where we could meet I do not see humans preventing extinction without maximising chinese youth (particularly womens dreams); due to covid we lost plans japan had to relaunch value of female athletes - so this and other ways japan and china and korea might have regained joint consciousness look as if they are being lost- in other words both cultural and education networks (not correctly valued by gdp news headlines) may still be our best chance at asian women empowerment saving us all from extinction but that needs off the record brainstorming as I have no idea what a cgtn journalist is free to cover now that trump has turned 75% of americans into seeing china as the enemy instead of looking at what asian policies of usa hurt humans (eg afghanistan is surely a human wrong caused mostly by usa); a; being a diaspora scot i have this naive idea that we need to celebrate happiness of all peoples an stop using media to spiral hatred across nations but I expect that isnt something an anchor can host generally but for example if an anchor really loves ending covid everywhere then at least in that market she needs to want to help united peoples, transparency of deep data etc

2021 afore ye go to glasgow cop26-

please map how and why - more than 3 in 4 scots earn their livelihoods worldwide not in our homeland- that requires hi-trust as well as hi-tech to try to love all cultures and nature's diversity- until mcdonalds you could use MAC OR MC TO identify our community engaging networks THAT SCALED ROUND STARTING UP THE AGE OF HUMANS AND MACHINES OF GKASGOW UNI 1760 1 2 3 - and the microfranchises they aimed to sustain  locally around each next child born - these days scots hall of fame started in 1760s around   adam smith and james watt and 195 years later glasgow engineering BA fazle abed - we hope biden unites his irish community building though cop26 -ditto we hope kamalA values gandhi- public service - but understand if he or she is too busy iN DC 2021 with covid or finding which democrats or republicans or american people speak bottom-up sustainable goals teachers and enrrepreneurs -zoom with chris.macrae@yahoo.co.uk if you are curious - fanily foundation of the economist's norman macrae- explorer of whether 100 times more tehc every decade since 1945 would end poverty or prove orwell's-big brother trumps -fears correct 2025report.com est1984 or the economist's entreprenerialrevolutionstarted up 1976 with italy/franciscan romano prodi

help assemble worldrecordjobs.com card pack 1in time for games at cop26 glasgow nov 2021 - 260th year of machines and humans started up by smith and watt- chris.macrae@yahoo.co.uk- co-author 2025report.com, networker foundation of The Economist's Norman Macrae - 60s curricula telecommuting andjapan's capitalist belt roaders; 70s curricula entreprenurial revolution and poverty-ending rural keynesianism - library of 40 annual surveys loving win-wins between nations youth biographer john von neumann


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