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resources recommended by world bank courseaa on risk management

Some questions you may want to reflect on when reading this text include the following:

  1. Why is the management of risks essential for development?
  2. What are the goals and motivation for risk management?
  3. What are the elements of an effective risk management process?
  4. How can people effectively confront risks that are beyond their capacity? What is the potential role of various social and economic systems in supporting people’s risk management?
Deep Dives
Rachel Kyte
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Rachel Kyte, World Bank Group Vice President and Special Envoy for Climate Change, explains the need to move from a tradition of disaster response to a culture of disaster prevention in order to strengthen resilience. Her talks atTedxSendai focus on the theme of natural disasters, disaster recovery, and resilience.
Disasters and their Impact on Poverty
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Clarke, Daniel, and Robert Reid. 2003. “Disasters and their Impact on Poverty.” InDisaster Risk Management in Post-2015 Development Goals: Potential Targets and Indicators, edited by Tom Mitchell, Lindsey Jones, Emma Lovell, and Eva Comba, pages 34–40. Overseas Development Institute.

This chapter highlights the importance of measuring transitory poverty due to natural disasters and of acknowledging its social cost. It introduces two potential indicators for disaster-induced transitory poverty. It also explores the possibility of accounting for the probability of an extreme event of a given magnitude occurring in a given year for measuring resilience to disasters, and supporting informed investments for increasing resilience to disasters. These indicators can help monitor whether progress in poverty reduction can withstand shocks and stresses, including disasters.
Social Impact of Financial Crises: Evidence from the Recent Global Financial Crisis
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Ötker-Robe, İnci, and Anca Maria Podpiera. 2013. “Social Impact of Financial Crises: Evidence from the Recent Global Financial Crisis.” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 6703. Background Paper to the 2014 World Development Report.

Economic and social indicators have deteriorated significantly since 2007. Countries hardest hit by the crisis lost more than a decade of economic progress. Regionally, advanced European and North American countries lost on average more than six years of economic time, while Central Eastern Europe and South Asia lost at least four. Young people have been hit particularly hard, with an estimated 74 million young people out of jobs in 2012 around the world. The financial crisis has disproportionately hurt the poor. Progress in poverty reduction has been uneven across regions, and the pace has slowed since 2007 across the board. Progress toward meeting the millennium development targets for undernourishment, primary education, maternal mortality, and improved sanitation slowed in the countries hit hardest by the crisis. Income distribution has worsened, while development indicators have deteriorated in several countries in Europe and Central Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa.
World Bank President calls for improved disaster risk management.
External site 

World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim is urging countries to prepare for disasters in order to reduce their vulnerability to catastrophic events. He spoke at an international dialogue in Sendai, Japan, after touring areas affected by the disastrous earthquake and tsunami that struck the nation in 2012.
Jobs for youth: Lost for years to come–ILO TV reports from Greece.
External site 

Greece has been one of the countries hit hardest by the financial crisis. Youth unemployment has soared and job prospects look bleak. According to the ILO's Global Employment Trends for Youth 2012, it may take four to five years before jobs rebound.

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Chapter 1. Risk Management Can Be a Powerful Instrument for Development.
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World Development Report 2014,| “Chapter 1. Risk Management Can Be a Powerful Instrument for Development” (pages 53–75, boxes optional).

This chapter provides the analytical framework of the risk management process. It elaborates on the relevance of risk management for development and the goals of risk management—resilience, to recover from negative shocks; and prosperity, derived from successfully managing positive shocks that open opportunities for development. It explains the risk chain—the environment in which risks and opportunities arise. It provides greater depth on the components that a strong risk management strategy should include—knowledge, protection, insurance and coping. It also provides a sense of the cost-effectiveness of preparation for risk. Some questions you may want to reflect on when reading this text include the following:

  • Why is risk management relevant for development and what are its goals?
  • What are the relationships represented in the risk chain?
  • What are the characteristics of the different risk management components, and how are they interlinked?
Chapter 2. Beyond the Ideal: Obstacles to Risk Management and Ways to Overcome Them.
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World Development Report 2014,| “Chapter 2. Beyond the Ideal: Obstacles to Risk Management and Ways to Overcome Them” (pages 78–103, boxes optional).

This chapter shows that the risk management framework described in chapter 1 is an ideal and that its implementation is often impaired, in practice, by many obstacles and constraints. It describes the most common obstacles faced by individuals and states, including lack of resources and information, missing markets and public goods, social and economic externalities, and political economy problems. It underlines the importance of identifying and prioritizing obstacles to risk management, and it proposes a policy sequence and policy priorities to be considered in order to tackle these obstacles and allow for improvements in risk management over time. Some questions you may want to reflect on when reading this text include the following:

  1. What are the most common categories of obstacles that people face when managing risk?
  2. What constraints prevent states from helping people overcome these obstacles?
  3. What are the policy priorities to address obstacles to risk management in the long term?

Deep Dives
A Review of the Ex Post and Ex Ante Impacts of Risk.
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Oviedo, Ana María, and Harry Moroz. 2013. “A Review of the Ex Post and Ex Ante Impacts of Risk.” Background Paper for the World Development Report 2014.

This paper offers a comprehensive view of risk by reviewing the effects of different types of risk on welfare, assets, human capital, and other outcomes at different points in the life cycle. It also examines the mechanisms through which risk affects these outcomes. The review distinguishes between the effects of idiosyncratic risk and aggregate risk, as well as between ex post and ex ante effects. It draws policy-relevant conclusions about the main obstacles that people face in managing risk efficiently, and identifies empirical challenges that researchers need to address to identify more clearly the relationship between risks, obstacles to risk management, and outcomes.
Benefit-Cost Analysis for Risk Management: Summary of Selected Examples.
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Wethli, Kyla. 2013. “Benefit-Cost Analysis for Risk Management: Summary of Selected Examples.” Background Paper for the World Development Report 2014.

Benefit-cost analysis provides one means of identifying the cases in which specific interventions to manage risk appear to be cost-effective. This paper summarizes the insights from a selected sample of benefit-cost analyses across a range of categories. Risk management appears cost-effective in many cases, sometimes overwhelmingly so. Improving early warning systems in developing countries could yield estimated benefits 4 to 36 times greater than the cost. The review suggests that preparation for risk often has high returns: although the costs of preparing for risk can be high, the costs that can be averted may be substantially higher.
Natural Hazards, UnNatural Disasters: The Economics of Effective Prevention.
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World Bank and United Nations. 2010. Natural Hazards, UnNatural Disasters: The Economics of Effective Prevention. Washington, DC: World Bank.

This report focuses on the effects of natural hazards on human welfare, particularly on its economic aspects. It contains case studies, data, and the application of economic principles to the problems posed by earthquakes, abnormal weather, and the like. It emphasizes the roles of market, government intervention, and social institutions in determining and improving both the prevention of and the response to hazardous occurrences. The report also draws from other disciplines: psychology, to examine how people may misperceive risks; political science, to understand voting patterns; and nutrition science, to see how stunting in children after a disaster impairs cognitive abilities and productivity later in their lives as adults. The report stresses that the growth of cities will increase exposure to hazards. However, if the cities are well managed, their vulnerability will not rise. The report also emphasizes the challenges posed by the changes in climate.
Investment Decision Making under Deep Uncertainty: Application to Climate Change.
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Hallegatte, Stéphane, Ankur Shah, Robert Lempert, Casey Brown, and Stuart Gill. 2012. “Investment Decision Making under Deep Uncertainty: Application to Climate Change.” Policy Research Working Paper 6193, World Bank, Washington, DC.

Agreeing on the choice of an optimal investment decision is already difficult for any diverse group of actors, priorities, and world views. The presence of deep uncertainties further challenges the decision-making framework by questioning the robustness of all purportedly optimal solutions. This paper summarizes the additional uncertainty that is created by climate change, and reviews the tools that are available to project climate change (including downscaling techniques) and to assess and quantify the corresponding uncertainty. Assuming that climate change and other deep uncertainties cannot be eliminated over the short term (and probably even over the longer term), the paper then summarizes existing decision-making methodologies that are able to deal with uncertainty related to climate change: namely, cost-benefit analysis under uncertainty, cost-benefit analysis with real options, robust decision making, and climate-informed decision analysis. It also provides examples of applications of these methodologies, highlighting their pros and cons and their domain of applicability. The paper concludes that it is impossible to define the “best” solution or to prescribe any particular methodology in general. Instead, a menu of methodologies is required, together with some indications on which strategies are most appropriate in which contexts. This analysis is based on a set of interviews with decision makers, in particular World Bank project leaders, and on a literature review on decision making under uncertainty. It aims at helping decision makers identify which method is more appropriate in a given context, as a function of the project’s lifetime, cost, and vulnerability.
Psychology and Behavioral Economics Lessons from the Design of a Green Growth Strategy.
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Weber, Elke U., and Eric J. Johnson. 2012. “Psychology and Behavioral Economics Lessons from the Design of a Green Growth Strategy.” Policy Research Working Paper 6240, World Bank, Washington, DC.

A green growth agenda requires policy makers, from local to supranational levels, to examine and influence behavior that impacts economic, social, and environmental outcomes on multiple scales. Behavioral and social change, in addition or conjunction with technological change, are thus crucial components of any green growth strategy. A better understanding of how and why people consume, preserve, or exploit resources or otherwise make choices that collectively impact the environment has important and far-reaching consequences for the predictive accuracy of more sophisticated models, both of future states of the world and of the likely impact of different growth strategies and potential risk management strategies. The prevailing characterization of human decision making in policy circles is based on a model of economic rationality. Relying on the assumptions of rational choice excludes from consideration a wide range of factors that affect how people actually make decisions. These factors need to be considered in predicting people’s responses to environmental conditions or proposed policy initiatives. A more complete and more fully descriptive understanding of decision processes also provides powerful tools for policy design that complement legal or economic instruments or may lead to more effective implementation of such policy instruments.

week 3.1 resources

Module 3.1 Resources
Chapter 3. Households Are the First Line of Support to Confront Risk and Pursue Opportunities.
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World Development Report 2014,| “Chapter 3. Households Are the First Line of Support to Confront Risk and Pursue Opportunities” (pages 109–135; boxes are optional).

This chapter provides greater depth on how the household contributes to people’s risk management and how this contribution can be enhanced. It elaborates on the most frequent risks that the households face, and their preparation tools and coping mechanisms. It highlights the limitations to risk management by poor households, notably arising from limited access to protection and insurance mechanisms or from imbalances of power and inequalities within the household. It describes the government policies that can substantially improve household risk management and increase households’ access to better opportunities. Some questions you may want to reflect on when reading this text include the following:

  • How can households contribute to risk management, and what tools do they have at their disposal?
  • What are the obstacles and limitations to household risk management?
  • Which characteristics improve households’ contribution to risk management?
  • What are the necessary policies to empower households as a unit and to empower individuals within household?
Chapter 4. Cohesive and Connected Communities Create Resilience.
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World Development Report 2014,| “Chapter 4. Cohesive and Connected Communities Create Resilience” (pages 138–163; boxes are optional).

This chapter provides greater depth on how communities can help people’s risk management and how their contribution can be improved. It elaborates on the ways communities can provide risk management tools, such as protection and informal insurance. It underlines and explains the characteristics that make communities more effective—cohesiveness and connectedness. It also explains how the communities can become much better at risk management with the right type of support from nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), donors, and local and national governments. Some questions you may want to reflect on when reading this text include the following:

  1. How do contributions to risk management from communities of location differ from those of communities as a cultural, identity-based group?
  2. How do communities provide risk management tools such as insurance and protection?
  3. How can the government help alleviate communities’ weaknesses and improve their role in people’s risk management?

Deep Dives
Moving Out of Poverty. Volume 2: Success from the Bottom Up.
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Narayan, Deepa, Lant Pritchett and Soumya Kapoor. Moving Out of Poverty. Volume 2: Success from the Bottom Up. Washington, DC: World Bank.

The Moving Out of Poverty series presents the results of new comparative research across more than 500 communities in 15 countries on how and why poor people move out of poverty. This study is one of the few large-scale comparative research efforts to focus on mobility out of poverty rather than on poverty alone. It draws together the experiences of poor women and men who have managed to move out of poverty over time and the processes and local institutions that have helped or hindered their efforts. It draws on people's own understanding of freedom, democracy, equality, empowerment, and aspirations-and how these affect poor people in different growth, social, and political contexts. The study finds that poor people take lots of initiative-in many cases, even more than those who are better off. There are millions and millions of poor microentrepreneurs. The investment climate of these microentrepreneurs has not been a centerpiece of poverty strategies. Too often, poor people do not face a leveled playing field. Despite the microcredit revolution, poor people remain outside of most financial services; and large lenders remain reluctant to lend to microenterprises and microentrepreneurs. New institutional models and financial instruments are needed to serve poor people's financial needs and give them the capital they need to expand their businesses and connect to markets.
What Are the Sources of Risk and How Do People Cope? Insights from Household Surveys in 15 Countries.
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Heltberg, Rasmus, Ana María Oviedo, and Faiyaz Talukdar. 2013. “What Are the Sources of Risk and How Do People Cope? Insights from Household Surveys in 15 Countries.” Background Paper to the 2014 World Development Report.

This study provides results on a major multicountry comparison of household surveys on shocks and coping. Natural disasters, health shocks, economic shocks, and asset loss are the most commonly reported types of shocks. People often cope using costly responses that increase their vulnerability to future shocks. The authors conclude that household survey modules on shocks and coping largely fulfill their objective of providing information on risk exposure, yet do little to inform policy beyond providing broad diagnostics.
World Values Survey
External site 

The World Values Survey (WVS) is a global network of social scientists who have surveyed the basic values and beliefs of the public in over 100 societies, on all six inhabited continents; how these values and beliefs change over time; and what social and political impact they have. The WVS measures, monitors and analyzes support for democracy; tolerance of foreigners and ethnic minorities; support for gender equality; the role of religion and changing levels of religiosity; the impact of globalization; attitudes toward the environment, work, family, politics, national identity, culture, diversity, and insecurity; and subjective well-being.

week 3.2 resources

Module 3.2 ResourcesHelp

Module 3.2 Resources
Chapter 5. Fostering Resilience and Prosperity through a Vibrant Enterprise Sector.
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World Development Report 2014,| “Chapter 5. Fostering Resilience and Prosperity through a Vibrant Enterprise Sector” (pages 167–189).

This chapter provides greater depth on the ways that the enterprise sector can help people confront risk and increase their resilience and prosperity. It describes the role and importance of two features of the enterprise sector that can improve its contribution to risk management-flexibility and formality. It describes government policies that can substantially help enhance these two characteristics and increase people’s access to better opportunities. Some questions you may want to reflect on when reading this text include the following:

  • How can the enterprise sector increase people’s resilience and access to opportunities?
  • What are the characteristics that that can improve its contribution to risk management?
  • What are the policies and policy principles for government to help enhance these characteristics?
Chapter 6. The Role of the Financial System in Managing Risk.
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World Development Report 2014, “Chapter 6. The Role of the Financial System in Managing Risk” (pages 192–221).

This chapter provides greater depth on how the financial sector fulfills a beneficial function of risk management and how this function can be improved. It describes the range of financial tools that can serve good risk management and the factors that affect the access to these tools. It also stresses the risk the financial system can impose on people, due to its propensity to crisis. It further highlights and advocates the government reforms that can help broaden a responsible use of financial tools and prevent systemic financial crises. Some questions you may want to reflect on when reading this text include the following:

  1. What tools can the financial sector provide for risk management?
  2. What characteristics improve the financial sector’s risk management role?
  3. What are the trade-offs between financial inclusion and financial stability?
  4. What can public policy do to broaden the availability and use of financial risk managing tools and to foster financial stability?

Deep Dives
The Unofficial Economy and Economic Development.
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LaPorta, Rafael, and Andrei Shleifer. 2008. “The Unofficial Economy and Economic Development.” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 47 (1): 123–35.

In developing countries, informal firms account for up to about half of all economic activity. Using data from World Bank firm-level surveys, the authors find that informal firms are small and extremely unproductive compared with even the small formal firms in the sample, and especially relative to the larger formal firms. Formal firms are run by much better educated managers than informal ones and use more capital, have different customers, market their products, and use more external finance. Few formal firms have ever operated informally. This evidence supports the dual economy (“Wal-Mart”) theory of development, in which growth comes about from the creation of highly productive formal firms. Informal firms sustain millions of people but disappear as the economy develops.
Barriers to Formal Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries.
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Auriol, Emmanuelle. 2013. “Barriers to Formal Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries.” Background paper for World Development Report.

This paper analyzes barriers to formal entrepreneurship, and thus to the formal sector growth. First, the analysis focuses on the administrative barriers in the form of official entry fees. It argues that by reducing market entry fees, developing countries could enlarge their formal sectors and hence the tax base. It also examines social barrier to formality in the form of family taxation in Sub-Saharan Africa. Because of the lack of social protection, Africans have developed a culture of forced mutual help that implies that local entrepreneurs in the formal sector have the social obligation to subsidize their family. This leads to a reduction in the firms’ productivity. The paper concludes that a low level of taxation and the lack of social protection have damaging consequences on the development of the formal sector, and thus of firm growth.
Financial Inclusion for Financial Stability: Access to Bank Deposits and the Deposits Growth in the Global Financial Crisis.
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Han, Rui, and Martin Melecky. 2013. “Financial Inclusion for Financial Stability: Access to Bank Deposits and the Deposits Growth in the Global Financial Crisis.” Background Paper to the 2014 World Development Report.

This paper examines the link between the broader access to bank deposits observed before the 2008 crisis and the dynamics of bank deposit growth during the crisis, while controlling for relevant covariates. The authors find that greater access to bank deposits can make the deposit funding base of banks more resilient in times of financial stress. Policy efforts to enhance financial stability should thus not only focus on macroprudential regulation, but also recognize the positive effect of broader access to bank deposits on financial stability.
World Bank. 2014. Financial Inclusion. Global Financial Development Report 2014.
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The Global Financial Development Report 2014 focuses on financial inclusion and demonstrates its importance for development and poverty reduction. It also stresses that policies promoting financial inclusion for all at all costs can lead to greater financial and economic instability. The report offers evidence-based advice on policies that support healthy financial inclusion. It also underscore the promising role of new technologies for expanding financial inclusion and highlights the importance of promoting innovative product designs that address market failures, meet consumer needs, and overcome behavioral problems.
Doing business database
External site 

This database presents comprehensive quantitative data that allows for comparison of business regulation environments across economies and over time. It offers measurable benchmarks for reform; and serves as a resource for academics, journalists, private sector researchers, and others interested in the business climate of particular countries.
Global Findex database
External site 

This database measures how adults in 148 countries save, borrow, make payments, and manage risk.
World Economic Forum’s Global Competiveness Database
External site 

The Global Competitiveness Index assesses the competitiveness of 148 economies across 10 pillars.

week 3.3 resources

Module 3.3 Resources
Chapter 7. Managing Macroeconomic Risk. Building Stronger Institutions for Better Policy Outcomes.
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World Development Report 2014,| “Chapter 7. Managing Macroeconomic Risk. Building Stronger Institutions for Better Policy Outcomes” (pages 225–247).

This chapter underlines the importance of a stable macroeoconomic environment and ample resources (fiscal space) that can finance government programs. It discusses policies that can reduce uncertainty and, hence, enable other economic and social systems to concentrate on productive activities and plan for the long term. It emphasizes the stabilizing role of countercyclical monetary and fiscal policies. It shows how the conduct of transparent and credible monetary policy has succeeded in delivering low inflation worldwide in the last 25 years. On the other hand, less progress has been made in the conduct of fiscal policy due to its inherent complexity. Nevertheless, several developing countries have improved fiscal transparency and discipline; this has enabled them to build buffers during economic upturns so that they have had resources to respond in economic downturns.

This chapter stresses the vital importance of making fiscal room to cope with shocks and deal with unexpected obligations. It describes ways to create fiscal space to build resilience for coping with economic downturns and to manage macroeconomic contingent liabilities. The chapter concludes by describing key institutional reforms to improve macroeconomic management. Some questions you may want to reflect on when reading this text include the following:

  • How can macroeoconomic policies help manage the economic cycle in good times and cope in bad times?
  • How has sound monetary policy helped deliver low inflation worldwide?
  • What are the institutional changes that can help countries escape from the trap of fiscal procyclicality?
  • Which are the ways to create fiscal space to build resilience and to manage macroeconomic contingent liabilities?
  • Which are the institutional changes that can improve risk management at the macroeconomic level?
Deep Dives
Focus on Policy Reform. Create independent fiscal and financial agencies to promote sustainable policies
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World Development Report 2014, Focus on Policy Reform, Reform 2 (Create independent fiscal and financial agencies to promote sustainable policies) (pages 280–281).

Reform 2 focuses on one of the four areas highlighted in the World Development Report 2014 where fundamental institutional reforms for better risk management are needed. It explains how establishing fiscal councils can promote fiscal sustainability. Also, it stresses the need for independent macroprudential supervisors to promote financial stability. It also discusses the experiences of countries that already have these institutions in place.
Volatility and Growth.
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Hnatkovska, Viktoria, and Norman Loayza. 2005. “Volatility and Growth.” In Managing Economic Volatility and Crises: A Practitioner's Guide, edited by Joshua Aizenman and Brian Pinto, 65–100. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

In this paper, the authors study the relationship between macroeconomic volatility and long-run economic growth. They find that macroeconomic volatility and long-run economic growth are negatively related. This negative link is exacerbated in countries that are poor, institutionally underdeveloped, undergoing intermediate stages of financial development, or unable to conduct countercyclical fiscal policies. They find evidence that this negative relationship reflects the harmful effect from volatility to growth, and that the negative effect of volatility on growth is mostly due to large recessions rather than normal cyclical fluctuations.
Zooming in from Aggregate Volatility to Income Distribution.
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Calderón, César, and Eduardo Levy Yeyati. 2009. “Zooming in from Aggregate Volatility to Income Distribution.” Policy Research Working Paper 4895, World Bank, Washington, DC.

This paper examines the impact of cyclical output fluctuations and extreme output events (crises) on unemployment, poverty, and inequality. They find robust evidence that aggregate volatility has a regressive, asymmetric, and nonlinear impact, as reflected in the strong influence of extreme declines in output. The findings show that public expenditure and labor protection have a beneficial effect and underscore the value of social programs and labor market regulation in developing countries prone to crises.
What Should Fiscal Councils Do?
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Calmfors, Lars, and Simon Wren-Lewis. 2011. “What Should Fiscal Councils Do?” Economic Policy 26(68): 649–95.

In this paper, authors consider potential explanations for the tendency of governments to allow deficit and public debt levels to increase and assess how independent institutions (fiscal councils) can help reduce this bias. They outline the specific tasks that fiscal councils might undertake and describe how are these combined in eleven existing fiscal councils. The paper includes two case studies of the fiscal councils in the United Kingdom and Sweden.
“Don’t Panic.” The Economist, February 1, 2014.
External site 

This article highlights economic factors that make most of the emerging market stronger than they were 15 years ago and argues that, despite economic weaknesses in two emerging markets, there are no reasons for a broad emerging market crisis.

week 3.4 resources

Module 3.4 Resources
World Development Report 2014,| Chapter 8 (pages 251–76).
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This chapter provides greater depth on the important role that the international community can play in helping people and their governments manage risk and pursue opportunities. It describes the circumstances that necessitate contributions by the international community, and the risk management instruments at the international level: global knowledge and expertise; global rules; capacity building and coordination; and mobilization of global resources. It reviews the international community’s significant contribution and progress in addressing risks, as well as the factors that limit its effectiveness. It provides policy recommendations to improve the ability of the international community to foster collective actions. Some questions you may want to reflect on when reading this text include the following:

  • When and how can the international community increase people’s resilience and access to opportunities?
  • What characteristics facilitate collective action?
  • How can the international community improve its contribution to fostering collective action despite its multiple players, complicated power structures, and often diverging goals?
Deep Dives
Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR)
External site

Established in 2006, the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) is a partnership of 41 countries and 8 international organizations committed to helping developing countries reduce their vulnerability to natural hazards and adapt to climate change. The partnership’s mission is to mainstream disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in country development strategies by supporting a country-led and managed implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action. GFDRR’s Partnership Charter, revised in April 2010, sets its original mission, rationale, and governance structure.
Pandemic Risk
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Jonas, Olga B. 2013. “Pandemic Risk.” Background Paper for World Development Report 2014.

This paper analyzes what pandemic risk means for development and how management of these risks can be improved, at both national and international level. It highlights the role of the international community in pandemic risk reduction and global risk management tools. It offers selected lessons from coping with pandemics and an analysis of factors underlying the mismanagement of pandemic risk. It also describes cost-effective, incentive-compatible policies to reduce pandemic risk.
Fragile States: Resource Flows and Trends
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OECD. 2013. Fragile States: Resource Flows and Trends. Conflict and Fragility Series. Paris: OECD.

This report review the concept of fragility, analyzes financial flows to and within fragile states between 2000 and 2011, and highlights trends and issues that are likely to shape fragility in the years to come. Despite the fact that half of fragile states are now middle-income countries, poverty remains concentrated in fragile states. It is estimated that by 2015, half the world’s people surviving on less than $1.25 per day will live in fragile states. The report notes that to address fragility as a driver of poverty and instability requires approaching fragility as a deeply political issue. The report highlights the issue of concentration of aid both within countries as well as at country level. Half of official development assistance (ODA) to fragile states goes to seven “donor darlings.” At the country level, some countries depend on extremely few donors, making them vulnerable to the inherent volatility of aid, while for some other countries there is an overabundance of small donors, making coordination difficult. The report concludes that the prospects for aid, growth, and poverty reduction in fragile states are gloomy, overall.
Dare to Prepare: Taking Risk Seriously
External site 

This video highlights the findings of the Oveseas Development Institute’s 2013 research report, Dare to Prepare: Taking Risk Seriously. The report focuses on international community’s financing of emergency preparedness, and finds that such financing is for the most part not adequate. It often does not exist, and where it does exist, it is usually complicated and fragmented. The report presents findings that support further investment in emergency preparedness activities, as the benefits far outweigh the costs. This report argues that while there are advantages to enhancing existing financing mechanisms, simply bolstering the existing system is not sufficient, and global solution must be considered.
Act Now, Act Together, Act Differently in Response to Climate Change
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This video was part of the World Bank MOOC, Turn Down the Heat: Why a 4°C Warmer World Must be Avoided.

Marianne Fay, Chief Economist, Sustainable Development and Climate Change, Climate Change Group, World Bank, stresses the need to act now, act together, and act differently in response to climate change, and underscores directions for how to translate this into action.
World Development Report 2014, Overview (pages 21–42, including boxes).
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This section of the overview summarizes the risk management contributions from the key social and economic systems and the public policies that have the potential to enhance them. It stresses the need for the public policy recommendations to be implemented in a proactive, systematic, and integrated way in order to optimize their efficiency. It explains how establishing a national risk board can facilitate proactive and integrated risk management. It concludes by explaining five principles that can be useful to guide the public action. These principles are derived from best practices around the world and relevant for different types of risks and countries. The boxes in this section describe three of the fundamental institutional reforms for better risk management identified by the World Development Report 2014: ensuring access to social insurance and solving problems of tying social insurance to employment status; creating independent fiscal and financial agencies to promote sustainable policies; and for international community, embracing incremental approaches that can increase traction toward global solution. Some questions you may want to reflect on when reading this text include the following:

  • What are the main characteristics of the key social and economic systems that improve their risk management role?
  • What are the main public policies that can enhance key systems’ risk management contributions?
  • What is the overarching institutional reform recommended by the World Development Report 2014?
  • What are the five principles that should guide the public action for better risk management?
World Development Report 2014, Focus on Policy Reform (Pages 278-79).
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The World Development Report 2014 identifies four areas where fundamental institutional reforms for better risk management are needed: establishing a national risk board; creating independent fiscal and financial agencies to promote sustainable policies; ensuring access to social insurance and solving problems of tying social insurance to employment status; and for international community, embracing incremental approaches that can increase traction toward global solution. This section focuses on the first reform: establishing a national risk board to assess and manage risks in an integrated way. It describes why managing specific risks in an isolated manner can lead to inefficiencies, both in formulating and implementing risk management strategies. It provides specific advices that reflect lessons from best practices around the world on the practical aspects of implementing this reform. Some questions you may want to reflect on when reading this text include the following:

  1. How does looking at risks in an integrated manner help define policy priorities and improve the efficiency of implementing risk management strategies?
  2. How can a national risk board be established and what functions should have?
  3. What do you think would be an appropriate institutional design for a national risk board in your own country?

Deep Dives
Innovations in Country Risk Management.
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OECD. 2009. Innovations in Country Risk Management. OECD Studies in Risk Management, OECD, Paris.

This OECD report reviews development and innovative practices in the risk management of large-scale events in six countries: the United Kingdom, Canada, the United States, Japan, the Netherlands, and Singapore. It focuses on organizational improvements and challenges to the pre-event phases of risk management: risk identification, assessment, and mitigation. It also tackles the important challenge that the governments face in determining how to meet and equitable share the costs involved by these practices.
Global Risks 2007: A Global Risk Network Report.
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World Economic Forum. 2007. Global Risks 2007: A Global Risk Network Report. Geneva: World Economic Forum.

Global Risks 2007 suggests two institutional innovations that could help improve the mitigation mechanisms of global risks. One is a Country Risk Officer—analogous to a Chief Risk Officer in the corporate world—who would serve as a focal point for understanding and managing a portfolio of risks, for establishing effective national priorities for risks and distribution of resources for managing different risks. A Country Risk Officer would be well placed to understand the interconnectedness between global risks, and help put into place a more strategic understanding and response to global risks.
Risk Governance: Towards an Integrative Approach.
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Renn, Ortwin, and Peter Graham. 2005. “Risk Governance: Towards an Integrative Approach.” White Paper 1. International Risk Governance Council, Geneva.

The establishment of International Risk Governance Council (IRGC) was the direct result of widespread concern within the public sector, the corporate world, academia, the media, and society at large that the complexity and interdependence of an increasingly large number of risk issues was making it ever more difficult for risk managers to develop and implement adequate risk governance strategies. IRGC promotes a multidisciplinary, multisectoral, and multiregional approach to risk governance. This White Paper represents a fundamental step toward achieving IRGC’s mission: the development of an integrated, holistic, and structured approach—a framework—with which to investigate risk issues and the governance processes and structures pertaining to them.

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Join search for Sustainainabilty;s Curricula

Duisburg turns into world's largest dryport - thanks to the 26 nations Rail across Eurasia Belt Road

Italy becomes west europe leader of belt riad mapping - with 10 yeras of studnet-friendly research by italian michele geraci

Help us question UN report on DIgital Cooperation 1 2 due summer 2019 with all star expert panel led by melinda gates and jack ma- both partners in celebrating brac's as world elader in digotal banking for the poor


stories of cities surprising Belt Road Cities

BR2 Dhaka where to go to with jack ma to see banking for billion poorest girls and more

BR2  home of nilekani - the billion person id an

BR6 Luxembourg hub of aiib2019

BR0 beijing - binnaul home of BRI weher 100 most trsetd national eladers of sustainable youth likon: home of tsinghua- universitiues that dont have partnerships with tsinghua will end up failing over 505 of their stidents livelihoods

BR0 Hangzhou - home of jack ma alumni

BR0 hongkong-shenzen - one of the world's 7 most wonderful bridges - china owes more to hongkong than it recognises with a new twist - all the best manufacturing jobs died before 2015-


Shenzhen: City of the Future. 

can shenzhen show how smart manufacturing jobs dont compete with sustainable communities they collaborate with them -can hpng kong arrange daytrips to the mainland for financial mivestors to understand the future of sdg economic zones


1 Investing in Girls Sustainability Goals
1.1 BRAC -how to build 100 million person rural health service with a 20 million dollar loan and girl empowerment other most amazing stories of the world's largest NGO- join the week long celebration between academic alumni of jack ma and girl empowerment epicenttre BRAC 30 sept 2018 - queries 

1.2 BKASH 3 since april jack ma has taken 20% partnership 
1.3 China Capitalism (CC)
1.4 Project Everyone
2 ValuingYouth
2.1 partners of 7 billion peoples' S-goals-Goal 17
2.2 end poverty -Goal 1
2.3 end hunger - Goal 2
2.4 healthy, lives - Goal 3
2.5 Quality Education - Goal 4
2.6 Gender Equality -Goal 5

please make sure our future events diaries are win-win

youthbrac1.doc youthbrac1.doc, 693 KB

Entrepreneurial Revolution - an investigation started at The Economist in the 1970s as to whether intergenerational investments in future systems would empower the net generation to be exponentially sustainable. Surveys of the next 40 years asked questions of 2015-2025 such as:

Would the global financial system be designed to sustain or collapse local communities?

Would 2015-2025 be the under 30s most exciting and productive time to be alive as they linked in sustainability of the human race.  Would the parts of the Western hemisphere that advanced the industrial revolution's empires demand that its politicians, professions and academics "happily get out of the way of the sustainability generation being led by the half of youth living within 3000 miles of Beijing"?

POP -Preferential Option Poor

Would every community's most trusted practitioners be educator, health servant and banker.

What would be the top 50 MOOCS that freed access  of action learning of sustainability goals as worldwide youth's most joyful collaboration through way above zero-sum models of wporldsocialtrade? This web makes the cases that the Abed family needs to be youth's number 1 hero to MOOC with - we always love to hear who your vote for number 1 MOOC is -text usa 240 316 8157 family of unacknowledged giant


100 links to BRAC

wanted - ideas on how anywhere could unite in celebrating good news of collaborating with brac

tools worth a look

help worldwide youth  networks action learn how curriculum of BRAC makes one of top 10 networks for womens livelihoods

defining question of our life and times-can online education end youth unemployment for ever ? yes but only if you help map how!

youth world of 2013 most exciting curriculum??


top 30 twelve minutes presentations


1 the billion girl club - how the first billion teenage girls of the 21st century mentored each other in learning a living, and regenerating all 4 hemispheres

2 how open technologists helped nursing to become the most trusted grassroots information networkof the 21st century, and saved the affordability of healthcare and nutritition for everyone

3 how community clean energy microfranchises became the number 1 educational curriculum that the chinese authorities invited the world to co-blog

more coming soon

4 cashless bank-a-billion -a project of the global banks with values network

5 orphanage networks as the world's most inspired jobs agency network and home of financial literacy mooc

6 bottom-up EAgri: designing a collaboration portal on the top 30 crops that need to be mobilised by local value chain maps so that hard working nutrition workers are sustainable however small their farming assets and however variable a particular season's climate

7 what do BRAC's barefoot professionals linkin so that village organisations are collaboratively resilient whatever nature-made or man-made disasters popup


Special child health, nutrition, family and educational development series:

*The First 1000 Days



*Choices to make the first 2 years after primary

BRAC has more staff grounded round the child and parent-eye view of these challenges in the poorest communities than anyone else. Their collaboration knowhow is as valuable as body of knowhow that I have come across in studying societies' value multiplying needs in over 40 countries

Ideas on freeing media to cenebrate the pro-youth economic models which richest need to learn from poorest to genenerate the:

  • next billion green jobs
  • next billion family/community sustaining jobs
  • next billion open technology jobs most worthy of our borderless and interconnected futures


contribute to survey of world's other favorite moocs-40th annual top 10 league table

  • 1) e-ME
  • 2) 6 week tour of grameen curriculum and uniting human race to poverty museums
  • 3) 6 week tour of brac curriculum and mapping microeducation summit for post 2015 milennium goals

send votes to , Macrae Foundation

  • 4) 6 week tour of africa's free university and entrepreneurial slums
  • 5 what to do now for green energy to save the world in time
  • 6 nurses as 21st world's favorite information grassroots networkers and most economical cheerleaders more



  • 7 how food security as a mising curricululum of middle schools can co-create more jobs than any nation can dream of
  • 8 pro-youth economics and public servants
  • 9 celebrating china as number 1 creditor nation
  • 10 questions worldwide youth are asking about what was true last decade but false this decade because that's what living in the most innovative era means



at 301 881 1655 love to hear from marylanders who can contribute to MOOC valuing net generation as age of conscious capitalism

Financial literacy education links:

BRAC's partner aflatoun

uk's face




Number 1 in Economics for Youth

xxx - dedicated to girls and boys who survived wars (worldwide or region's Belt Roads)

Top 10 Right Old Muddles

I was tidying up my father's office when I came across a little black book. It was a diary. Many pages were headed Another Right Old Muddle.  There in not much more text than a twitter profile of a young man. The bottom line was replicated on every page . XXX YYY flew off at 8am and did not return

Dad was one of the luckiest ones. He survived world war 2. While spending his last days as a teenager navigating arirplanes over mkodernday Myanmar and Bang;ades he had a lot pf down time. He had 3 books with him - from adam smit, maynard keynes, and a biography of gandhi. From war he went to Corpoius Chrfiost Cambrodge where he was one of the last to be mentired by none other than Keynes - theleading end poverty systems journalist of his era. In late 1947 dad started righting 45 yeras of leaders for The Economist. Here then are 10 right old muddles we will need to help giorls and boys livelihoods mediate now if our species is to sustain another century let alone a milleenium

leap beyond 10 old muddles

1 value girls - eg brac girls or the most couargeous and loving under 30s gorls entrpreneurs - eg AC Ori YC - have you met a woman under 30 who you'd vote for as matching these extraordinary multipliers of goodwill and action? Or an elder they all wish to be an alumni of - eg sir fazle abed

2 value girls, boys, those born poorest - three ha;ves of the world youth, women, poor- all have less than 10 per cent share of voice in the future of their generation - if your born into all 3 of these categories you used to have less than zero positiuve say- until from 1972 sir fazle abed started to empower vilage girls to buuild a nation - and along the way he interescted 3 times with china who had also gone through the cutiral revolution of girls hold up half the sky. This was good news because the peoples connected by the south and east asian coatsal belts number half the world's population- thio9se that had been most victiomised by Britannia- thise that the books of adam smith, keynes and gandhi provide suffiecnt slues to know how to value sustainability and action networks sdgs - should that be a job worthy of all of us alive tioday.

3 understand that the root cause of world wars was need to end colonisation -whiuch inkconevneintly was how large countriues developed between 1500 and 1946

4 Celbrate belt road trading models that go beyiond colonisation with win-win tyrades 

5 First learn from any period in history when positive currencies or other mechnaisms permitted win-win trading to be mapped- identify the expoemtial balance rising or crashing that history revolved round

6 Clarify the unprecdented chnage that is defing life of the 3 generations mainly responsible for 1946-2030- technolgy's moore law in any forms that grand parent parents and youth could be educating each other one

7 Correct the desin ofault in empire education Adam Smith was forst to clarify- it was never to desinged to avlue youth , their livelihhods, innovation forces

8 Agree that as well as coms tech (digital and real world, human and artifician intelligence) compounding round us - we needed to celebrate chnaging machine and huiman sources of energy  to be renewable amd to keep commons resources like wagter and air clean

9 Understand that the west's 3 main corporate forms and their lawyers needed transfromation if all peoples places are to be sustainable. MOre than that we need to freinds each other helping each other nations out of hostory's system traps. Any media that doesnt do that is fame media'

10 Wherever politicians or their academkic hacks tell you there isnt enough work for youth to do- something is desperatly wriong with the education, economics and valuation metrics being siued. THere is so much work to be done if we are to lap beyong systesm that are expoebntaoly crashing towards extinction. These are the most exciting tiemns to be alive- our family trees of grandparent parents youth are detemining whether tere will be any moore tres

map first 10 places of and alumnisat.combr /> no particular order - tokyo from 64 and 2020
beijing tsinghua from 1984 -uni or rural little sisters
hangzhou to 1500 and from 2008

hong kong under chiense british and chiense rule
singapore under 3 rules
dubai under 3 rules
glasgiw when adam smith or fazle abed were there
america's south while martin luther king and muhammad yunus were there

BRAC quiz -help us compile the most exciting quiz of sustainable world

Q did brac create 100 million rural health service with 20 million dollar loan A

Q is brac helping jack ma bank for the billion poorest women?

Q did brac help the UN understand that the 300 trillion dollars of most liquid finance is barred from investing in sustainability development goals as an asset class?

Q before Jack Ma's partnership with one of brac's networks can you name 5 of brac's partners in being the world's largest NGO?

Q before Jack Ma's partnership had brac's educators assisted with livelihoods of over 150 million people

Q True or false: China and Bangladesh are the 2 most populous nations whose economies are sustained by girls as much as boys

top partners making brac worlds larfest ngo at

Chris Macrae posted this

what if only educators technologists and youth can sustain our species?

infrastructure banking most exciting cases  Keynes alumni Schumacher is famous for saying the greatest economic miracle  of all would be ending poverty in  millions of villages--  observe how  1960s  climaxed with one  network of  adew thousand americans racing to  the moon while over a third of worlds people still had no elecrtricity.  What happened next is truly miracolous    -its the tale of 2 regions coastal   bangladesh  and  mainland china separated by some land partitoned for India when (grandad) Sir Kenneth Kemp was ordered to hastily write up legalese of India's Independence. For the history search mediation between Gandhi and Mumbai Chief Justice Kemp 1925-1946. For Do Now futures  linkin  AIIB2018  Mumbai  June -  for the greatest education revolutions study 1972-2015              in  Bangladesh's BRAC eg at this Ning and with over half a billion chinese women. For next education steps in valuing girls livelihoods linkin WISE@Accra May 2018,   at  United Nations sept 2018, at Paris Mar2019 or more at and    

fan and

brac turned aid into sustainable business franchises run by village

our dream - fav bookmark on www = free lessons on working to unite all 17 sustainability goals

4 Goal Edu &


















Rice science – most valuable lesson

















Half of life saving health services are free

A nation without locally owned banks for the poor cannot sustain girls nor entrepreneurs of jobs sustainability generation needs to celebrate


















Happy 80th birthday by 100000 people of  BRAC to Sir Fazle Abed


The seeds of BRAC were planted in the efforts of Sir Fazle and friends to assist families affected by the Bhola cyclone in 1970. BRAC was then officially established after independence, supporting refugees to rebuild their lives. At a critical early juncture , we abandoned our focus on relief and adopted a longer-term objective of development, opting to work side by side with community members for decades to come.

We do not ignore emergencies and their impact on people living in poverty. We build community preparedness and grassroots platforms that activate in natural disasters to minimize damage and to channel relief. Our goal is to help households bounce back better.

Better often means changes such as stronger infrastructure or new livelihoods for families that depend on agriculture, for example, and are therefore increasingly vulnerable to climate change.

As Bangladesh urbanizes, we have expanded our focus to include manmade disasters like fires and building collapses, most recently Rana Plaza in 2013.

Massive natural disasters internationally have triggered us to expand into new countries  like Haiti and Nepal to support national recovery the way we did in Bangladesh so many years ago

2 Healthy Lives and healthy futures

Doctors and hospitals were scarce in Bangladesh’s early days. We created an army of community-based entrepreneurs to bring medicine to every doorstep. Over time, the army became all female, challenging social norms and enabling women to access important products and information

mothers -and this redesgned whole market value chains to be lew in trist for poorest and where necessary eg kids education invented conditioanla cash transfre - ie where donation is given to specific identifiable task - eg scolarships for thise secoindary chikdren who had best results in brac primnary schools

main links to brac - chris will update by saturday 10 feb

17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Last Call India Appreciation Tour of BRAC and Bangladesh Girl Developed Economies

Mary, and friends:  after leaving qatar mid novmenber,  where 3 of top 10 sustainability summits of next 15 months  prior to beijing belt road 2.0 may 2019 were announced on behalf of wise education laureates and with the blessing of antonio guterres...this brac tour has been my main focus- all errors are therefore mine; good parts javeed's amy's mostofa's .." bgcolor="#000000" valign="top" height="175"> - can you help with new york agency for global2.0...

Peter – I don’t know where education fits with everything you audit but any errors in following review of all the neighbors of china’s belt roads are mine alone

Mary my main question– do you know anyone in Indias, China, Bangladesh or elsewhere who loves touring BRAC and girls empowered solutions to ultra sustainability chalenges. If so, please could you introduce them to one or three of A) Javeed, B) Mostofa, C) Amy whose facilitation/personal networking roles are as follows:


 Javeed after a business and education career as part of the India Diaspora in New York, whom I met at wise and jointly interviewed everyone we could reach at Qatar Foundation ,  is dedicated to sharing everything he can find with India educators; mostofa who grew up in Bangladeshi villages is our organizing guide of brac; of 10 trips he has organised since 2007, the last one took chinese graduates like amy to sir fazle’s 80th birthday party- attached is brac’s own birthday history of sir fazle’s 45 years. Amy who grew up in Hunan villages is currently post graduating at columbia’s earth institute in new york while her fellow companion yuxuan is Rhodes scholar in Oxford and daughter of public servants in china’s province bordering North Korea,. Sir Fazle’s daughter is a Columbia Alumn



Happy 80th birthday by 100000 people of  BRAC to Sir Fazle Abed


The seeds of BRAC were planted in the efforts of Sir Fazle and friends to assist families affected by the Bhola cyclone in 1970. BRAC was then officially established after independence, supporting refugees to rebuild their lives. At a critical early juncture , we abandoned our focus on relief and adopted a longer-term objective of development, opting to work side by side with community members for decades to come.

We do not ignore emergencies and their impact on people living in poverty. We build community preparedness and grassroots platforms that activate in natural disasters to minimize damage and to channel relief. Our goal is to help households bounce back better.

Better often means changes such as stronger infrastructure or new livelihoods for families that depend on agriculture, for example, and are therefore increasingly vulnerable to climate change.

As Bangladesh urbanizes, we have expanded our focus to include manmade disasters like fires and building collapses, most recently Rana Plaza in 2013.

Massive natural disasters internationally have triggered us to expand into new countries  like Haiti and Nepal to support national recovery the way we did in Bangladesh so many years ago

2 Healthy Lives and healthy futures

Doctors and hospitals were scarce in Bangladesh’s early days. We created an army of community-based entrepreneurs to bring medicine to every doorstep. Over time, the army became all female, challenging social norms and enabling women to access important products and information

We challenged the global health community by putting the life saving treatment for diarrheal disease in the “unqualified” hands of mothers, and generated evidence that they could use it effectively. We created a community-based tuberculosis control model, expanding over time to become the government’s largest partner in combating the disease.

The growing numbers of people living in poverty in urban areas face serious health risks, including maternal and infant mortality. Our network of healthcare entrepreneurs continues to ensure that women can access care safely, quickly, and with dignity.

Recent breakthroughs in cognitive science have shown that focusing on early childhood development has transformative effects over a lifetime. Pilot programmes are putting this research into action at the grassroots level

The primary challenge of healthcare now is less about access and more about quality. We  are building financial tools to continuously ensure more people can access services that meet their evolving health needs.



We started by teaching basic literacy to adults, then realised we needed to start from the start.  We changed our nor-formal primary schools as “second chances’ for people living in poverty especially girls. Our pedagogy focused on joyful learning, incorporating the best practices from around the world.

As students graduated from our schools. We felt a need for creative ways to continue learning beyond the classroom. Libraries offered reading materials, and adolescent clubs created safe spaces and opportunities to teach life skills.

Our focus moved towards quality, with universal access towards education in sight, through strategies such as teacher training and increased use of technology. We proactively recruited students with special needs and expanded our curriculum into multiple ethnic languages to ensure that our schools were successful to all children.

Our ultiimate goal is to build a nation, and for that we need leaders. That is where our focus is now – creating opportunities for youth to take responsibilities in programmes, as mentors, and as teachers themselves. Our university creates even more opportunities to contribute on a global scale.

4 Financial Inclusion

We started by bringing people living in poverty together. We quickly learnt that what they needed most urgently was access to economic opportunities and financial services.

We brought women together into village organizations to organize credit and savings arrangements, and then used these meetings as a platform by delivering a wider range of services.

Over time, we expanded our reach to unserved populations, such as the “missing middle” (enterprises that were too large for the loans offered by microfinance but excluded from commercial banks) and a comprehensive grants based programme for people living with poverty, who could not benefit from microfinance.

We are now building a broader set of financial products, including insurance and pensions, and leveraging the growing ownership of mobile phones to use digital channels for financial services.

5 Market Solutions for the Poor

A fundamental driver is a lack of power – at the individual, household and community level alike... Power dynamics need to change in order for people living in poverty to realize their potential , and they only change when people do it themselves.

We promoted consciousness raising and empowerment from our earliest interactions with communities, inspired by teachings on social movements. We underestimated the complexity of power dynamics though and learned the hard way that we needed to create new organisations, where women could come together in solidarity. These community action groups became important social platforms; for example, supporting health workers who faced harassment for their services.

We widened our work over time to help people living in poverty to participate in formal government structures and leverage public services. We also increased our engagement with public official and village leaders to build wider support for women’s empowerment. These discussions have risen to the national level, where we advocate policies that support gender equality and human rights. Internally we have worked to build a female-friendly work environment and actively strive to recruit women.

Gender equality remains one of the greatest unfinished works of our generation, and an area in which we have to continue changing power dynamics. We still see that child marriage is the norm, sexual violence is pervasive, and women are under-represented in the workforce.


6 Changing Power Dynamics

As we began to provide financial services to people living in poverty, we noticed that many rural communities did not have access to markets

We started building value chains, connecting thousands of farmers and artisans to national markets. We focused on silk, poultry, clothing and retail, in many cases the viability of new sectors in Bangladesh. The successful scaling up of one value chain often spawned new livelihood opportunities, from poultry vaccinations to artificial insemination for dairy cows.

Entrepreneurship is also a long standing part of our development approach. Over time we have built a national cadre  of local change agents, usually women, who receive training and support from us, but are paid for their services by their neighbours. These grassroots entrepreneurs distribute a wide variety of products and services, from sanitary napkins to high quality seeds.

As local and global labor markets offer new opportunities. We are supporting migrants to seek and finance work abroad safely,  and equip youth with in-demand skills



By 2002 we had over 30 years experience of piloting and perfecting programs, and scaling them to reach millions. The time had come to bring what we had learnt in Bangladesh to the rest of the world.

Relief and rehabilitation were immediate needs after war and natural disasters plunged millions into poverty in Afghanistan and Sri Lanka. We focused on peace and building stability through jobs, education and financial inclusion, continuing to put girls and women at the centre of opportunities.

We expanded into Africa four years later, starting development programs in Tanzania and Uganda. We continued to pilot, perfect and scale rapidly never losing focus on contextualising every opportunity created

Opening now in 12 countries gives us a rich knowledge base to further our work in Bangladesh, while providing us with a global network in which to pilot new solutions for the world’s problems. In 2016, we create opportunities for one in every 50 people in the world...





Before a tour guide to brac/bangladesh- here’s a brief review of all of China’s neighbors and why the old English Raj is in population terms the biggest of china’s belt road tours and new development searches. Brett’s x times great grand father JAMES WILSON started this tour with Queen Victoria – after founding The Economist to help her debate what was London doing to Ireland (see current pbs episode of Victoria) he was dispatched to Calcutta started standard bank, died 1860 of diarrhea 9 months into the project. His son-in-law Walter Bagehot refocused on English constitution and pound sterling as commonwealth reserve currency with Victoria.

Accidentally the next time The Economist had a sub-editor with east west experience was my dad who waa a teenage navigator over modernday Myanmar in world war2 , who married the daughter of sir Kenneth Kemp whose 25 years as Mumbai chief justice mediating Gandhi ended up writing up legalese of india’s independence; most of dad’s first 20 years  The Economist celebrated the East’s post colonial win-win economies ie japan s korea Chinese diaspora superports (archives) and by 1976 asked americans to celebrate asian pacific china global century as much as their own third century.

online library of norman macrae--

At the time of moon landing dad started his other main dialogue of the 20th C  world’s favorite viewspapre  – Entrepreneurial Revolution – assuming the world was in 1968 destined to spend 1000 times more on commons tech in 2016 versus 1946 would we transform education to sustain all millenials livelihoods or the opposite?



1 China’s east coast supercity connection are great : every positive win-win trading future can be dreamed with them : the superports and trains are ready to connect more than half the world’s economy which is how sustainability mapmaking should be with half the world’s people living within 3000 miles of Beijing but crowded in to less than 10% of the earth’s land


2 china’s border with asean looks pretty good ( asean with singpaore as its cultural soul is in top 6 development miracles with china mainland , china superports diaspora, s korea , japan , Bangladesh girls)


3 Now we come to the crucial corridor Myanmar Bangladesh India Pakistan – all old British Raj; what important to bring 2020 vision to first

Bangladesh is a key coastline – if it had a superport that united all trade interest on china India Bangladesh Myanmar that would change more girls lives than any single superport anywhere

The miracles of Bangladesh and mainland china both started at beginning of 1970s. In fact to start with japan shared rice science in a partnership with brac and china that was number 1 solution in ending famine. However china developed with the diaspora (the 3rd greatest financial power by the 1970s) inward investing in superb infrastructure; bangladesh girls had to build their nation with what aid they could turn into sustainable social business (the invention many people believe muhammad yunus designed but actually brac did. See The Economist article it wasn’t microcredit it was BRAC)

4 Next we come to Pakistan corridor to united arab emirates and thence djibouti to Africa, up the suez and through the Mediterranean sea- the brilliant new maritimne silk road

5 As you continue tour of landlocked neighbors, its impossible for china to make anything much better without mediating Russia’s goodwill. Even the ovetland Chinese Express to west Europe passes through the Shanghai Cooperation neighbours of which Russia is a core dynamic , and which India joins for the first time as full member this year (2 incredible summits in june aiib Mumbai and SCO qingdao)" bgcolor="#000000" valign="top" height="175"> thanks AmyChina QuarterBillionGirls

6.1 You then have 4 trajectories through Russia but which you can also call the artic belt road. One is direct trade route to Nordica via st Petersburg which organisies a major annual economic summit- here the shared by 8 countries and pivoting out of finland is the best news of all new universities of 2018 following damo as best news of 2017" bgcolor="#000000" valign="top" height="175"> and welcomes all open technology heroines...

6.2 Direct route to Moscow – essentially what is the strategic future of Russian and East Europe people  the west  (EU) had first chance to mediate if the fall of the berlin wall had been about more than reuniting Germany

6.3 Direct north through mongolia – quite an unpopulated region but potentially renewable as pivotal natural space

6.4 north east where the dream has always been a runnel across Bering Strait so that north east Eurasia Alaska Canada West Coast usa van all be one supertrain corridor as well people spaces that are totally complementary as sustainable economies if 20th c borders hadn’t been erected primarily by stalin

6.5 Of course the last border challenge: as neighbors turn full circle is north korea- here we have 30 million underdeveloped people ; they too need one superport; this solution can really only come about if russia china japan and south jorea start to trust each other

I welcome being told what stories youth should map differently than above; if I have over-simplified or got them wrong please don’t throw out the brac and bangaldesh superport challenge without looking at it in more detail. 

First if you put a straight railway line from Beijing to xi’an to chengdu to the coast you would almost hit the Myanmar-bangladesh border- at cox’s bazzar which yunus and my father discussed as needing to be a superport with 50 people at the royal automobile club london in feb 2008! Second if you did a railway from chengdu to Gwadar you would almost pass through new delhi thus opening up all the route to emirates : Oman , Djibouti and Adrican silk road, suez and med sea silk road. But third if you review every sustainability goal in terms of which communities face the hardest entrepreneurial challenges you would come back to bangaldeshi girls as still being the SDG17 world's most vital youth partners. If climate goes wrong there will be more initial flooding of peoples along bangladesh coastline than anywhere. Brac has designed an economy where communities and girls networks maximizing their own capacities to build the future. This is the story that all of sheihka moza’s wise partmers can honor as brac was their first educational laureate and now that guterres has asked them to stage the girls and refugee learning summits at the UNGA Sept 2018.


Key people in choosing what goes on at this summit are thes ame UN eminent sdg goals panel as aiib is reporting on both at aiib Mumbai 2018 and argentina g20 july 2018. All of brac’s organisational dna is francsican (Paulo Freire) as is all of jim kim’s prior work at partners in health with paul farmer amd george soros. You cant do global last mile health services without brac style networking. Fortunatley jim kim’s last job before he joined the world bank was to make pih’s lab in africa in rwanda with kagame who now chairs the african union. .

So it is that goodwill with china’s immediate neigbors connects through to goodwill in middle esst, Africa, med sea nations (the happiest in the old silk road before 1500 but today the refugee and isis crisis hotspots),  and ultimately brac and girls are at the crossro9ads of a muslim francsican coinfucian fusion of families build healthy economies across generations not vice versa 


The G7’s win-lose macroeconomics computes big data big; this is not mathematically correct let alone exponentially sustainable if you refer to Einstein and von Neumann., and it will not produce the human ai  (or the truth media) we now despearately need to celebrate if little sister sustainability world is to be the end game instead of orwallian big brother. These are the most excitiing tiness to be alive. What we do with tech of banking and education over the next few years determines species sustainability.


TOURING BRAC AS INTEGRAL TO 2018 teachers Game of Fives and World Record Jobs Creators

Publishers of the sino-english world record book of jobs creation demand that any educator responsible for youth future livelihoods understands teachings of these 5 peoples alumni network if they are to help with sustainability rising out of every community" bgcolor="#000000" valign="top" height="175">

World Record Book of Job Creation

1 Xi Jiping (worldwide sustainability investment maps –both china end poverty 2020, and benchmark ecological cib=vilisation 2050)

2 Sir Fazle Abed (girls futures)

3 Antonio Guterres  (worldwide borders reconciliation, and 17 SDGoald local deadlines )

4 Pope Francis (missing connector of all major goodwill spirits – what jack ma calls curriculum of LoveQ)

5 Jack Ma (tech futures humanized; big data small enough for every child to code –china’s work on robot teaching assistants appear to be where education unicorns are at; remember 2018 is year of 5 million china startups- which of these do 5th grade girls need to know about for sdgoal to be their realities not just dreams 



In 1972 BRAC began as a training network in an area where 1 million people had be killed by a cyclone and there was no infrastructure left- who could reconstuct what; it was always building community self capacity – home and safety  (to this day brac employs more barefoot lawyers than bangladesh has police stations), local food security, local helath security, a jobs-led education system, and villagers own value chains and finance. starting in villages with no electricity and illiteracy; its first primary schools trained women; who then became teachers. The newly indepenentent national government didnt have enough taxes to develop the cities so it let brac be the public self-service of villages. BRAC is the ultimate Paulo Freire action learning network; it scaled across villages person to person to 1996. Then the parallel network yunus started 11 years after brac was first to test mobile and microsolar connectivity. However at its height yunus only owned one third of grammen phone. Brac maintained total ownership of its digitalization – today it connects the largest cashless banking sstem in the workl – the coding superstars from this are the same bangladeshi americans who started with yunus but now linking mit dubai legatum and Nick Hughes the original coders of mpesa- bill gates networks comes to brac to study how to try to do cashless banking elsewhere. However in bangladesh bkash connects with every network as does brac education. In africa and afghanistan where one major partner per country asked brac to join in, adolesecent girls clubs are the main hub for educational networking ( only one of 10 main moving parts of brac back in bangladesh). Bangladeshi girls empower a fusion of edutech and fintech in ways that every poorest nation needs to benchmark before its has a chance to get to the superhighways of development that China is. So as in a 2006 bangaldesh dialogue paper put it – three giants need to grow up together China India and Bangladesh if you search to achieve the deepest sustainability goals and not to leave the bottom 20% out of the sustainability goals era.

Since 1999 Brac formed a university - its signature course is the James Grant School for public health servants - the first lesson module brac ever scaled across the village mothers network was oral rehydration which saved a quarter of infants lives; james then head of unicef took to having a pack of the sugar-salt mix in his suit and demonstrating it at every royal dinner table he graced...


Our favorite is the new economy of valuing world's poorest girls-  brac, founder Sir Fazle Abed, is the world's most knowledgable network in empowering girls sustainability- started in bangladesh in 1972 its first 25 years of grassroots networking was entirely face to face as bangladeshi girl villagers had no electricity so no telecoms nor other ways of being connected beyond the village;

leapfrog models - when mobile is your first telecom; when solar is your first elecetricuty ; when cashless is your first bank ...

bangladesh was one of the first nations to test how to use mobile with world poorest womens networks; most leapfrog market models can benchmark an ultra goals version that brac has helped linkin - start with the developing worlds largest cashless bank using mp3 tech

related references from the sino-english first edition of world record jobs creators

Index of WRJC (version 1 to 2020)

E1 Xi Jinping (Rejuvenation global2.0; world's most transparent maps on win-win trade for all) E99 Lee Kuan Yew E2 Sir Fazle Abed (world's favorite educator eg empowered girls to resolve poverty's greatest challenges, BRAC & Bkash)  
E3 Jack Ma leapfrog tech (big data small), ecommerce curriculum as one of china's 4 greatest inventions 1 -IR4  can develop 10 times bigger people-centred economics)  E98 Gandhi & Montessori & Mandela,  E4 Nilekani (bridges to English as 2nd most valuable language in world Modi, Kalam, Singh) W1 Tim Berners Lee (the www , we havent seen it yet- human collaboration can be so much bigger, bridge to any mit lab with human app) W2 Jim Kim being healthcare most courageous public servant lads to being the sanest western voice in world banking and most peace-loving North Korean American; ; W3 Pope Francis and W99 Pope John Paul; W4 Justin Trudeau , W5 Michael Palin, W6 Henry Kissinger -superpower mediator extraordinaire; E5 Yo-Yo Ma, IM pei.. Chengl Li Cultural leadsers sans frontieres; W7 George Soros; W8 Larouche family; W18 Paul Polak, E12 Pony Ma, E13 Rhen Zhengfei (Huawei), E14 Guo Guangchang (fosun) E15 Liu Chuanzhi (lenovo)E16 Feng Lun (vanton), E17 Yuriko Koike and Abe, e18 Li Ka-shing founder ckgsb e19 moreno, blum and perini, E20 robin li  W19 Thorkil Sonne,

help edit presentations of sir fazle abed and xi jinping and jack ma as #1 world record job creators and search out youth economies with special thanks to youth mediators

here's a doc and global youth fast changing urgent intelligence debate on

sustainability worlds record jobs mapmakers- how would you turn it into a viral video or a few slides or other collaboration stimulus of valuing investment in youth/girls as sustainability goals generation- who are the peer networks you most want to share it with- please help us question 2 different things- the people you know who you can share  it with; the people you would dream of sharing it with -what actions would you first intend resulting from the intelligence you mediate

BRAC PRIMARY SCHOOLS 5.3 million girl alumni of BRAC

A second chance at education 
Over the past 29 years, the number of BPS has grown exponentially. We started working in 1985, opening 22 one-room schools and providing three years of schooling up to class 3, which was later extended to class 5. The main objective of non-formal primary schools is to develop a school model for the underprivileged and primary school dropout children, especially girls, to complete the five-year primary school syllabus in four years.


BRAC also works with other development organisations to expand education opportunities for disadvantaged children by partnering with them and providing them with technical and financial support to implement BRAC’s non-formal primary education model with changes as needed. These collaboration activities are called education support programmes.

Key features

  • The one-teacher school is operated by the same teacher for the same cohort of children for a period of four years and delivers lessons in all subjects
  • The school hours are flexible and fixed according to needs
  • Children do not pay any fees and there are no long holidays
  • Little or no homework as most of their parents are not capable of assisting them
  • Children with special needs receive corrective surgeries along with devices like wheelchairs, hearing aids, glasses and ramps
  • Children belonging to ethnic communities receive class lectures and course materials in their own languages up to class 2 so that they can overcome language barriers and cultural gaps
  • BRAC develops textbooks and other materials for up to class 3 and government textbooks are used in classes 4 and 5
  • Students are taught about social values and their rights and responsibilities coupled with basic financial education to empower them
  • BRAC primary school graduates are being tracked by BRAC for further study

Mechanism to ensure quality of teaching
A typical BRAC teacher is a woman from the community in which the school is, with 10 years of schooling experience. Teachers undergo an initial 12-day training course in order to repeat basic information on teaching and learning and to enhance their teaching abilities. They subsequently participate in monthly, subject-based refresher courses and yearly orientation prior to advancing to the next class. In collaboration with BRAC University’s Centre for Language (CfL), BRAC provides a two-month long (21 days each) teacher training programme in English to the teachers.

What is the linkage with the government education system?
Bangladesh government has allowed BPS students to appear for Primary Education Terminal Examination which is a fundamental board examination that takes place at the end of class 5.

The effectiveness of this programme was evident when the graduates of the non-formal schools were well ahead of the country average when it came to passing grade for the primary school examination - 97 per cent success rate in 2009, and 99.54 per cent in 2010.

How do we track graduates at secondary schools?
BRAC experienced that its graduates admitted in secondary schools often cannot complete their education due to many critical circumstances. We started the ‘tracking of BRAC graduates at secondary schools’ programme to ensure their enrolment at the secondary level, promote regular attendance, reduce dropout rate so that they successfully complete the course.

BRAC is also regularly in touch with secondary school authorities and other organisations to manage scholarships and full/half free education for BPS graduates.

a.    Shikkha Tari: Boat School
b.    School for dropped out children
c.    Performing and fine arts
d.    Total learning experience (TLE)
e.    School for street children
f.     Social and emotional learning (SEL)
g.    Aflatoun
h.    Mobile library for BRAC Primary Schools
i.     Interactive digital content in primary education
j.     Kumon mathematics at BRAC schools

Quick facts:
14,153 primary schools 
389,910 students, of whom 62.17% are girls
5.3 million students completed courses to date, of which 60.43% are girls
5.55 million students transferred to formal schools to date, of which 60.12% are girls
14,153 teachers

Read Stories:
Innovative Steps Towards Primary Education in Haor Area
Akhi studies hard to be a teacher.
Alam, a Non-formal Primary School Student, Now Runs His Own.


Related Videos:
Mitali Dango: BRAC School Teacher
BRAC Primary School Students Singing.


 youthbrac1.doc, 693 KB  1  2 3

which value chains could teachers know how to help youth redesign to end poverty - fashion, crafts, agriculture, banking, health, disaster, education ...

Valuing half of the world under 30 13 Replies 


can you help under 30s map worldyouthcommunity 
brac, and love the world of education again

Open Learning Campus welcomes you. If you are looking for World Bank OLC please start at or ; other search queries text usa 240 316 8157 -or start at superplaces -sustainability designed by every family not a handful of bi-polar political big brothers

Breaking news Match 2016 - chinese youth lead creative children delegation to brac to discuss open education's entrepreneurial revolution and joyful consequences for girls the world over

Breaking News March 2015 First Bangladesh OLC launched by U of Berkeley and BRAC Sir Fazle Abed. 

Welcome to partners in mapping Open Learning Campus- and

Four world record job creation explorations in one


1 Open Platforms eg 5 billion peoples: Xprize replaces Yazmi?, Khan and OD Coursera- NG leads china partners out of Baidu

2 Labs for partnering the greatest changes in teachers and students, families and communities

3 Designers of the future of the net -generating the smartest liveliood creating media

4 Missing job creating curricula and ending the 4 monopolies of pre-digital state-dominated examination of youth’s futures


internet as entrepreneurial revolution of learning learning

 Mandela Extranet Partnerships including Google and Branson

Feb 2015 Breaking News  Latest skype with Taddy Blecher in South Africa confirms that all teacers and students at 7t grade will soon get ipads for accessing te missing job creating curricula such as MII Maharisi’s love yourself, financial and entrepreneurial literacy, coding


As you know, with eg learning satellites of 5 billion people in play,  there is a lot of mashing up of curricula going on - and it would be really useful if Rome and Glasgow and Paris and Madrid and Budapest and Warsaw could find common ground over next few months if any is to ever be found out of Europe in time to valuing millennials livelihoods







valuing millennials

bernardo I would like to thank you for the suggestion but people like tebabu and stefanos are much closer to noah at than I am (while thursday is my first neet , tebabu frequently drinks coffee with noah) - there is also the issue ...

View on

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ps could you tell me whether or not you decided to spend 6 weeks in Dhaka round the turn of the year; as far as I can see peoples diaries and information networks over next 6 months are not synchronised yet in ways that could maximally support sir fazle abed; it would be a shame bordering on catastrophe if millennials never had accurate understanding of how much of Bangladesh's first 44 years depended on his life's action learnings and open engineering mindset

wanted - ideas on how anywhere could unite in celebrating good news of collaborating with brac

Timeline of Open Learning Campus (OLC) -latest newsletter

2014 world record top10 job creator jim kim's world bank takes collaboration lead : launching OLC (with coursera) august 2014, 2nd annual youth summit october 7 2014, first annual UN-partnered millennials competition spring 2015


100 links to BRAC

how did villager networks around Sir Fazle build rural health service? build village education? build banking networks? build valuetrue maps of food , water and safe-for-children communities? 

background research links on women4empowernent curricula at and millennials (25-35 profesionals) most valuable knowledge network ever to human race at


1972: in the West The Economist starts debating OLC after seeing students experiment with early digital learning network (UK national dev program computer assisted elarning; milllenials goals and swot of planetary sustainability of net generation published after 12 years of global views mediation; NZ educators start continuous experiments at book form becomes favorite export to 10 million chinese parents

in East BRAC starts greatest bottom-up lab for OLC -Bangladesh becomes doubly famous for this when Muhammad Yunus starts linkng in 4 years later- latest updates celebration's MOOC Yunus; yunus invites atlanta to turn youth peace laureate summits into twin capitak events with most value to host than olympics or world cup

.. ..

1989 Berners Lee launches the web- soon mit media lab in boston becomes most resourced open source tech wizards innovation lab;early 1990s Samara launches Africa's and Asia first freedom of peoples info satellites-sonn Kenya's IHUB backed by ushahidi becomes the  worldwide youth's most exciting open source tehnology wizard's networking space

- 2014 update Yazmi.comled by DC-Ethiopia diaspora networks

Late 1990s S.Africa's free university launched- 2014 update Blecher parners now shoot for 1 million additional job creation across whole 14 million youth african schooing system by 2020- ihub partners all over africa (and indeed in any capital with future) invited to linkin

Late 200s Khan Academy invesnts the most valuable reporting format of all -maximum 9-minute audio blackoards-0 game is on- which audio-blackboards are so valued by youth to peer to peer learn with that their viral actin networking makes trending on twitter look like a sideshow

puzzle 1 : Back in 1962 The Economust celebrate the win-win peace economics model of japan and projects milennail population statistics will require Asian Pacific milllenials to be responsible for more than half of the planet's open and  sustainbility investments 1975- 2025- who;s connecting this? jack ma?  Yao Ming with Brookings Inside Out China and Unseen Wealth teams? rsvp washington dc hotline 301 881 1655

How did bottom-up NGO BRAC become the world's largest most collaborative network for partnering in millennials sustainability? While it is known globally and locally for sharing extreme innovations in community banking, its foundations were first built on 3 subnetworks:

bottom-up disaster relief

massive scaling of microfranchisie solutions to life critical challenges

what the WISE laureates value as number 1 job-creating education network in the world (parallel nominees by context of freedom of entrepreneurial skills)

help us review 2013 MOOC

2013 was a year in which professors might have found out what a huge gap ...

- is khan academy's 60 minutes introduction to coding the most valuable training billions of youth have ever been offered? otherKhan links

Who's mapping the most valuable collaboration youth networks in the world -here's why 42 years of entrepreneurial revolution surveys lead us to value orbiting around families of Abed and Soros and Turner- whose collaboration with youth's futures do you value most?



  • what would a million youth most wish to see in a 6 weeks mooc guided tour to -if you can help our research please email  washington dc 1 301 881 1655

hottest youth-spring question of our life and times-can online education end youth unemployment for ever ? yes but only if you help map how!

youth world of 2013 most exciting curriculum??

What would the world miss if MOOC had never existed? world tour next stop: Dhaka  date to be announced

sample urgent correspondence- - have you tried - biggest change in 40 years since dad (The Economist's Norman Macrae) and i first saw 500 youth sharing knowledge around a digital network..

now anyone with a set of slides that shows how collaboration with them can most change the world can get linked in to job-creating education, mentoring hopefully be star players in free university - a fascinating question to explore is which mooc will first connect a million youth live- more

Feb 2013 breaking news- 2 curricula we are prioritising research for this month are

  • collaboration NGO (which NGOs would you wish to see contribute to this course) and
.Norman Macrae -first to journalise the EU, Japan and Asia Century, Entrepreneurial Revolution, Net Generation is a hard act for his family to follow. Parting 2010, he left instructions to co-host parties wherever places (or his pro-youth economics friend muhammad yunus) invested most in their youth's collaboration round heroic purposes. Following party at boardroom of The Economist,  one of the next 3 parties- Japan Embassy in Bangladesh - planted the idea that Norman's friends can celebrate those who design MOOCs around 10 times more job creating systems of education- wow yes please!,and thanks so much to sir fazle abed for agreeing to host a follow up party on this March 2013.

Favorite Partners of Journal of Youth Economics : BRAC, MOOC Developers, Youth Jobs Competitions; The Economist's Unacknowledged Giant Family Foundation and Friiends in Japan, S Africa,...


1 2 3 .. SocLab

 Youth  PARTNERING - BRAC:& JICA  1 2 & Nike & MIT Legatum & MastercardF & GatesF & DFID & Aflatoun & Kiva & wholeplanet

Our Foundation - and friends of youth job creation -  at are delighted to nominate BRAC as the most purposeful partnering organisation we have ever seen. Of course we enjoy comparing views -who's your nomination?

What is more the Abed family have spent more energy on future of schools than anyone we know 

Norman Macrae Foundation Washington DC 1 301 881 1655

This is all very good news for all those celebrating 2013 as Year of The MOOC  -as well as those who see education as the gateway to changing the purposeful freedom of life's 7 most valuable pro-youth markets of the net generation's post-industrial revolution mapped by The Economist and its readers since 1972


40 years ago, my dad at The Economist and I first saw 500 youth sharing knowledge around a digital network. Both of our lifetime passions united in searching for the most purposeful organisations of the net generation - a search dad branded in The Economist from 1972 Entrepreneurial Revolution and which ten years later became our 2024 Report on investing in millennium goals so that the net generation could be the most productive and collaborative time to be alive





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